Office: 405.601.6147
Fax: 405.212.4931

Simulated Hail Damage and Impact Resistance Test Procedures for Roof Coverings & Membranes

Vickie Crenshaw and Jim D. Koontz, P.E.

This article is based on a presentation delivered to the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues (RICOWI)
meeting Oct. 27, 2000, in Dallas, Texas
.

See attachment for a copy of this full article.

Introduction

Roofing-related building code issues traditionally focused on fire resistance and structural loading of snow, wind, and drainage. As building codes evolved, numerous other construction issues came to the forefront, including items such as ADA compliance. Historically, neither impact nor hail resistance was of significant concern.

Now, four major codes include provisions requiring roofing systems to meet minimum impact resistance requirements. Specifically, these codes include the BOCA National Building Code (BOCA)1; the International Building Code (IBC)2; the Standard Building Code (SBCCI)3; and the South Florida Building Code (SFBC)4.

One assumes the intent of the codes is for buildings to be constructed with roof coverings or membranes offering some minimal level of resistance to impact or hail.

Technical Organizations

Technical organizations that have been involved with impact or hail testing procedures include:

  • The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
  • The Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB).
  • The European General Agreement Board (EGAB).
  • Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC).
  • The National Institute of Science & Technology (NIST).
  • Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

The impact methods developed by these organizations utilize projectiles made of steel, plastic, or ice. In the case of steel projectiles, darts or spheres of various impacting diameters are dropped from predetermined heights to produce an impact with the same kinetic energy possessed by the same diameter hail.

The European plastic sphere5 and National Bureau of Standards NBS/NIST ice sphere projectiles6 are pneumatically propelled. The projectile produces a kinetic energy equal to that of free-falling hail.

Part of the problem lies in defining the terms “impact resistant” and “hail resistant.” A secondary issue involves discerning whether the two terms are fully interchangeable. Additional challenges involve testing of various roofing products and determining whether impacting a roof system with a steel or plastic projectile produces damage that is comparable to hail.

Surprisingly, many of the test methods focus only on new or newly-installed material tested only at room temperature. The effect of lower surface temperature often encountered during actual hailstorms and the effect of aging are not considered in most test methods. In fact, Koontz reported in 1991 that surface temperature at the point of impact could be a factor in hail damage.7 William Cullen subsequently stated in 1992, “the results of testing new materials may not be valid since the hail impact resistance of many roofing materials changes upon exposure to weather.” 8

Impact and Hail Resistance Test Procedures

Depending on the test method, simulated hailstones of steel, plastic, or ice are propelled or dropped onto test targets with predetermined impact energies. These values are derived from the impact energy of hailstones graphed by J.A.P. Laurie in 1960.  Laurie graphed the relationship among terminal velocity, hail diameter, and the approximate kinetic (impact) energy (Table 1).9

Table 1. Terminal velocities and energies of hailstones
 Diameter Terminal Velocity  Approximate
Impact Energy 
 inches   (cm.)   ft/s   mi/hr   (m/sec)   ft lbs   (Joules) 
 1  (2.5)   73   50  (22.3)  <1
 (<1.36) 
 1¼  (3.2)   82   56   (25.0)   4  (5.42) 
 1½  (3.8)   90   61   (27.4)   8  (10.85) 
 1¾  (4.5)   97   66   (29.6)   14  (18.96) 
 2  (5.1)   105   72   (32.0)   22  (29.80) 
 2½  (6.4)   117   80   (35.7)   53  (71.9) 
 2¾  (7.0)   124   85   (37.8)   81  (109.8) 
 3  (7.6)  130   88   (39.6)   120  (162.7) 

Standard Test Methods

The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC), and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) each have standards for impact resistance or hail resistance.

ASTM D-3746: "Standard Test for Impact Resistance of Bituminous Roofing Systems"10 
FM 4470: "Susceptibility to Hail Damage, Test Standard for Class 1 Roof Covers"11 
UL 2218: "Impact Resistance of Prepared Roof Coverings"12 

Additional standards include: CGSB 37GP56M (Canadian General Standards Board), “Standard for Membrane, Modified, Bituminous, Prefabricated, and Reinforced for Roofing [Dynamic Impact (Puncturing]) Test”13 and ASTM D4272, “Standard Test Method for Total Energy Impact of Plastic Films by Dart Drop.”14

A closer look into a few of these methods reveals significant variations, not only in the procedures utilized, but also in the resultant data and subsequent certification attained. With the ASTM D3746 method, a steel dart drops from a predetermined height, impacting bituminous test targets with impact energy of 22ft. lbs. (30 J). A standard provision allows the test to be performed at any desired temperature and on new or in situ membranes. ASTM recognizes the importance of temperature and aging with this standard.

FMRC certifies roof coverings for hail resistance. This test method utilizes steel balls dropped onto test targets from various heights. Two FMRC certifications are available: Class 1 SH (Severe Hail Resistance); and Class 2 MH (Moderate Hail Resistance).

UL certifies roof coverings or membranes for impact resistance. The method utilizes four sizes of steel balls dropped at various heights onto a roofing system test target. The impact resistance is based on four classes with Class 4 the most resistant. Testing is performed on new roof coverings at room temperature.

Several notable differences exist between the test methods utilized by FMRC and UL. For instance, artificial weathering is employed in the FMRC test procedure but not in the UL. FMRC procedures address new roof coverings (or membranes on test decks) and similar ones exposed to 1,000 hours of weathering. UL procedures test new material only.

Photo 1: Fractured Interply Moppings of an SBS Modified Roof System
 
Further review of the procedures used by FMRC and UL indicates that UL requires separation of bituminous or multilayer samples into individual components to determine internal damage from impact. In some cases, as with SBS membranes, the membrane may pass the impact test with slight granule loss. However, separation of the sample may reveal interply mopping asphalts have been fractured as shown in Photo 1. The FMRC procedure does not require separation of the sample; instead, visual examination of the top and bottom of the sample is considered adequate.

It should be noted that both FMRC and UL test procedures are performed at room temperature, without taking into account the temperature drop usually experienced during a hail event.

The testing inconsistencies between FMRC and UL may result in one roofing system passing a hail test but failing the impact test of the other organization.

For comparison, Table 2 summarizes the respective test standards, parameter, and impact energies of the ASTM, FMRC, and UL methods. 

Table 2. Kinetic energies produced by ASTM, FM, and UL standard test methods
 Standard   Missile parameters
 Diameter, 
in. (mm)
Mass
 lbs. (kg) 
 Distance, 
 ft. (mm) 
 Energy, 
 ft. lbs. (J) 
 ASTM D 3746   2" (50)   (2.27)   4'5.0" (1355)   22 (33.0) 
 FM Class I-SH   1.75" (45)  (.360)   17'9.5" (5400)   14 (19.0) 
 FM Class I-MH  2" (51)   (7.37)  5' (1500)  8 (10.8) 
 UL Class 1  1.25" (32)   .28 (.127)  12' (3700)   3.36 (4.6) 
 UL Class 2  1.5" (38)   .48 (.218)   15' (4600)   7.2 (9.8)
 UL Class 3 1.75" (46)   .79 (.358)   17' (5200)   13.43 (18.3) 
 UL Class 4  2" (51)   1.15 (.521)  20' (6100)   23 (31.2) 
Ice Sphere Method

Another test method involves propelling an ice sphere at a roofing target. The NBS Series 23 (Ice Sphere Method) is based on the early work of Sidney Greenfeld. Using ice spheres, Greenfeld researched the hail resistance of various roofing materials. Greenfeld utilized the terminal velocities and impact energies by Laurie (Table 1) in his research, and these continue to be the primary values used today.

In February 2000, FMRC published test standard Class Number 4473, “Specification Test Protocol for Impact Resistance Testing of Rigid Roofing Materials by Impacting with Freezer Ice Balls.”15 This standard lists four classifications with Class 4 as the highest rating available. This test standard was established to meet Texas Department of Insurance and other state jurisdictional requirements for impact resistance by hail. The standard does not qualify products for a Factory Mutual Approval at this time.

FMRC 4473 references NBS Building Science Series 23 by Greenfeld and clearly specifies, “for new material only.” According to the test protocol, one is to “visually scrutinize top and bottom surfaces of test specimen” after impact. Separation and examination of individual layers are not specified. Temperature during testing is to be maintained between 60˚ and 90˚F. Impact energy values are slightly higher as FMRC utilizes increased velocities of the hail spheres.

Research Methodology

Jim D. Koontz & Associates, Inc. (JKA) performed research to explore potential differences in the test methods, focusing on three common test methods: FMRC 4470, UL 2218, and the NBS Ice Sphere Method. Selecting an approximate impact energy of 14 ftlbs allowed comparison between UL 2218 Class 3, the FM Severe Hail Test, and the NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere test methods.

The testing process included Thermoplastic Olefin (TPO), Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) modified, clay tile, concrete tile, Atactic Polypropylene (APP) modified, BuiltUp Roofing (BUR), shingles, Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) reinforced and nonreinforced, and PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC) reinforced and nonreinforced. In order to compare impact methods, limited product samples were tested. Results should not be seen as a reflection of product group performance.

Test Targets

Deck construction below all tested roof systems consisted of 3foot x 3foot x ½-inch CDX plywood. The singleply impact targets consisted of the membrane and two layers of 1-inch polyisocyanurate insulation. The BUR and Modified Bituminous Membrane target construction consisted of the membrane installed over 1-inch perlite insulation. The shingle and tile test targets consisted of the shingle/tile and underlayment.

Test Variables

Although temperature at the time of impact and membrane aging are not considered in most test methods, both variables were incorporated into the JKA testing process. All roofing systems were first tested at room temperature. To explore the potential effect on impact resistance, the temperature of the roof membranes was lowered to 40˚F. This was accomplished by using a manifold or a nozzle system (or both) to distribute chilled water over the test target. Actual field samples of varying ages were used to address the effect of aging. According to Koontz, most new singleply membranes initially have a high degree of impact resistance.16

While some material, such as tile and EPDM, appeared unaffected by age and temperature, clear differences were observed in shingles and PVCs. Tests on several different, new roof membranes at lower temperatures also revealed substantially different results with some of the tested materials.

Roofing Materials Tested
  1. TPO: New Material. Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere at room temperature and 40ºF.
  2. SBS: New Material. Fractured interply asphalt at room temperature and 40ºF, all methods.  This would be considered Failed under UL Class 3 and Passed on FM-SH since with FMRC the membrane components are not individually examined.  Failed NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method @ 40ºF, membrane fracture.
  3. SBS: Aged material (14 years). Fractured interply asphalt at room temperature and 40˚F all methods. This would be Failed under UL Class 3 and Passed under FM-SH. Failed NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method @ 40˚F, membrane fracture.
  4. Clay Tile: Aged material. Failed UL Class 3 and FM-SH at room temperature and 40˚F. Passed NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚F.
  5. Concrete Tile: Aged material. Failed UL Class 3 and FM-SH at room temperature and 40˚F. Passed NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚F.
  6. APP: New material. Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere at room temperature and 40˚F. Slight granule loss at impact point when tested at 40˚F.
  7. BUR: New material. Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere at room temperature and 40˚F. Note interply fracture of asphalt observed at 40˚F with FM-SH Test. The FM test does not require separation; therefore, this damage would not be detected.
  8. Shingles: New material, (180 wt.). Failed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚F. The fiberglass mat fractured during NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at 40˚F.
  9. EPDM Non-Reinforced: Aged material (15 years.). Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚F.
  10. EPDM Reinforced: New material. Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚.
  11. PVC Non-Reinforced: New material, (5 mos.). Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature. Passed UL Class 3 and FM-SH at 40˚F. Failed 1.75-inch ice sphere method at 40˚F. This product had a FM Class 1-SH rating.
  12. PVC Non-Reinforced: Aged material, (8 years). Passed UL Class 3 at room temperature. Failed FM-SH and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature. Failed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and 1.75-inch ice sphere at 40˚.
  13. PVC Reinforced: New material. Passed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚F
  14. PVC Reinforced: Aged material, (6 years). Failed UL Class 3, FM-SH, and NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere method at room temperature and 40˚F.

Steel or Ice

Obviously the impact energy from dropping a steel ball can be calculated to equate to the kinetic energy of ice in the form of hail. However, as the research has shown, test methods employing a steel ball do not always reflect an accurate accounting of a roof covering’s hail resistance.

Consider the controversy that arose when the Texas Department of Insurance (TDI) adopted a program of discounts or reductions in residential insurance premiums that relied on the finding produced using the UL 2218 test method. JKA research indicates that roof coverings such as slate, concrete tile, or clay tile will withstand impact from an NBS 1.75-inch ice sphere but can fail even under the minimum UL Class 1 rating (1.25-inch steel ball dropped at a height of 12-feet).

Photo 2: Ice Sphere at Moment of Impact with Concrete Tile
 
The answer to the technical question of why some roofing systems fail when impacted with steel versus ice is relatively simple. The ice spheres will compress or crush upon impact with a very hard surface such as concrete tile. Photo 2 depicts an ice sphere at the moment of impact with a concrete tile. A slight crushing of the ice is seen to occur at the surface of the sphere.

Photo 3. Steel Projectile at Moment of Impact with Concrete Tile
 
When steel projectiles are used, however, the fact that the steel is much harder than the concrete and does not compress can result in a tile failure. The moment of impact of a steel projectile upon a concrete tile is captured in Photo 3

Both projectiles—the ice and steel—struck the concrete tiles with the same impact energy. Therefore, the impact failure with steel does not accurately reflect the tile roofing product’s true hail resistance.

Building Codes

Building codes are an important consideration when discussing roof failures. As previously stated, all four of the model code agencies now address impact resistance. The IBC, SBCCI, and SFBC requirements apply to roof slopes less than 2 in 12. BOCA applies to all roofs and roof coverings.

Each code, with the exception of SFBC, which refers to FM 4470 only, lists four test methods for impact resistance: ASTMD 3746, ASTM D4272, CSGB 37GP56M, and FM 4470. It is important to note that the code requirements provide a choice between test methods.

Choose Wisely

Table 3. Impact Energies of Projectiles
   Method       Impact Energy       Projectile   
FM 4470  14 ft.-lbs.   1.75" Steel Ball 
 ASTM D-3746  22 ft.-lbs.   2.00" Dart 
 CGSB 37-GP-52M   3.6 ft.-lbs.       0.222" Puncturing Tip     
 ASTM D-4272   5.42 ft.-lbs.   1.50" Dart 
Depending on the test method selected, the impact energy varies from 3.6 ftlbs to 22.0 ftlbs. This equates to approximately a 1¼-inch hail for the 3.6 ft-lbs to a 2-inch hail for the 22.0 ft-lbs, a significant difference. As summarized in Table 3, one can quickly determine the inequality of the test methods.

Since the codes are not specific as to selection of a test method for specific roof coverings or membranes, one assumes if challenged, the test method will be chosen based on best results for a particular material. This is an area for further research—one that the authors are currently undertaking.

Conclusions

It is clear that the current test methods available for product hail resistance certifications will not work for all roof coverings. Based on JKA research, several key points became evident.

    • Some test methods represent an ineffective measure of a membrane’s field ability to withstand hail.
    • Temperature at the time of impact will affect the results of some membranes.
    • Resistance of some membranes changes with aging.
    • Internal damage is not always apparent on the surface of bituminous systems. Separation of the membrane may be necessary to evaluate internal product damage.

Manufacturers could face potential liability when products fail as a result of the size of reported hailstones being less than the requirements of the code. Graham cautioned manufacturers, roof system designers, and contractors not to misrepresent a roof system’s performance during hailstorms.17

Because building codes are an important consideration when discussing roof failures, it would appear that code organizations need to more clearly define which test method is required for each roof covering or membrane. If not, they should list which test methods closely mirror one another in equivalent results so that a more equitable comparison is achieved. Is their intent to measure “hail resistance,” as the FM test is centered, or “impact resistance,” which would be the UL, ASTM, or CSGB methods?

Of the current test methods, FM 4473 and NBS Series 23 are the most realistic for hail resistance testing of all roof coverings. Shortcomings of the two test procedures are temperature at the time of impact and examination methods. Results obtained from steel ball tests as an indicator for hail resistance are not applicable. While ice spheres are currently the closest simulation of hail, one should not consider them an exact replication.

Building owners, consultants, and manufacturers should carefully evaluate a product’s hail resistance prior to considering its use in hailprone areas. Products with certifications may not perform as represented since temperature, and in some cases, aging are not part of the test procedure upon which the certification was based.

Bibliography

    1. The BOCA National Building Code (1999), Fourteenth Edition, Building Officials & Code Administrators International, Inc. Chapter 15, pg. 159.
    2. International Building Code (2000), International code Council, Chapter 15, pg. 276.
    3. Standard Building Code (1999), Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. Chapter 15, pg. 192.
    4. "Test Procedures for Roof System Assemblies in the South Florida Building Code," South Florida Building Code (1994), Metropolitan Dade County Board of Rules and Appeals, pg. 34-111. Protocol PA114, Appendix F, pg. 4.
    5. Schoepe, Reiner, "Test Methods Used in Product Development," Proceedings of 1985 International Symposium of Roofing Technology, pg. 280.
    6. Greenfeld, S.H., "Hail Resistance of Roofing Products," Building Science Series (BSS) 23, National Bureau of Standards, August 1969.
    7. Koontz, J.D., "The Effects of Hail on Residential Roofing Products," Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Roofing Technology, NRCA/NIST, 1991, pg. 206.
    8. Cullen, William C., "Hail Damage to Roofing: Assessment and Classification," Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Roofing Technology, NRCA/NIST, 1992.
    9. Laurie, J.A.P., "Hail and Its Effects on Buildings," Research Report 176, NBRI, Pretoria, South Africa, 1960.
    10. "Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Bituminous Roofing Systems," ASTM D-3746.
    11. "Susceptibility to Hail Damage, Test Standard for Class I Roof Covers," Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Class Number 4470, Class 1 Roof Covers, Revised August 29, 1992.
    12. "Impact Resistance of Prepared Roof Coverings," Standard UL 2218, Underwireters Laboratories, Inc., May 31, 1996.
    13. "Canadian General Standard for Membrane, Modified Bituminous, Prefabricated and Reinforced for Roofing," CGSB 37-GP-56M, July 1980.
    14. "Standard Test Method for Total Energy Impact of Plastic Films by Dart Drop," ASTM D-4272
    15. "Specification Test Protocol for Impact Resistance Testing of Rigid Roofing Materials by Impacting with Freezer Ice Balls," Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Class Number 4473, February 2000.
    16. Koontz, J.D., "A Comparative Study of Dynamic Impact and Static Loading of One Ply Roof Assemblies," Special Technical Publications 95 1988, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1988.
    17. Graham, Mark S., "Hail-resistance Guidelines," Professional Roofing, December 2000, pg. 48.

 

35 comments (Add your own)

1. xbwbhk wrote:
order viagra soft online
sublingual viagra 100mg http://canadian-pharman.com

Fri, September 21, 2018 @ 10:07 PM

2. wrote:
best search engine medical information

Tue, November 6, 2018 @ 12:40 PM

3. wrote:
It's in reality a nice and helpful piece of information.
I'm happy that you shared this helpful information with
us. Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

Tue, March 5, 2019 @ 9:59 PM

4. wrote:
Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my
blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
I've been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time
and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.
Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

viagra

Wed, March 6, 2019 @ 4:41 PM

5. wrote:
Thanks for finally writing about >Simulated Hail Damage and Impact Resistance Test Procedures for Roof
Coverings & Membranes | Heartland Architectural Products Buy Cheap Viagra Online Buy Cheap Viagra Online

Thu, March 14, 2019 @ 10:09 AM

6. wrote:
I do believe all the ideas you have offered
on your post. They're very convincing and can definitely work.
Nonetheless, the posts are very brief for newbies.
May just you please lengthen them a bit from subsequent time?
Thank you for the post.
buy Cialis online without best cialis online canadian pharmacy

Thu, March 21, 2019 @ 8:28 AM

7. Johnb21 wrote:
Actually its referred to as Search engine optimization that when i search for this post I found this web page at the top of all web pages in search engine. abeeedfeeaec

Mon, March 25, 2019 @ 9:38 PM

8. Pharme434 wrote:
Hello! viagra india generic

Tue, March 26, 2019 @ 11:24 AM

9. Pharmb29 wrote:
Hello! [url=http://via3indian.com/#2.html]viagra india generic[/url]

Tue, March 26, 2019 @ 11:24 AM

10. Pharmc803 wrote:
Hello!

Tue, March 26, 2019 @ 11:27 AM

11. Johnk161 wrote:
Wonderful site. Plenty of useful info here. I'm sending it to a few pals ans additionally sharing in delicious. And naturally, thank you to your sweat! kfkddedfkkcc

Mon, April 8, 2019 @ 9:59 AM

12. wrote:
Hmm it looks like your site ate my first comment (it was
super long) so I guess I'll just sum it up what I had written and say, I'm thoroughly enjoying your blog.
I as well am an aspiring blog blogger but I'm still new to the whole thing.
Do you have any recommendations for novice blog writers? I'd certainly
appreciate it.

Sun, April 21, 2019 @ 11:11 PM

13. wrote:
My programmer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from
PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of
the expenses. But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using WordPress on various websites for about a year and
am worried about switching to another platform.
I have heard very good things about blogengine.net.
Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts
into it? Any help would be really appreciated!

Wed, April 24, 2019 @ 7:25 PM

14. wrote:
I was wondering if you ever considered changing the
structure of your site? Its very well written; I love what youve
got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way
of content so people could connect with it better.
Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or two pictures.
Maybe you could space it out better?

Fri, April 26, 2019 @ 6:19 AM

15. Johng788 wrote:
Fantastic website. A lot of useful information here. I'm sending it to a few pals ans also sharing in delicious. And naturally, thank you in your sweat! bacbeefdkgda

Sun, April 28, 2019 @ 10:58 AM

16. wrote:
Компания "Промтеплострой"
предоставляет на рынок в пределах России и СНГ
большой выбор пром. оборудования, в том числе широкий выбор редукторов различного назначения.
Для изготовления и сборки используются только качественные и надёжные материалы.
Специалисты помогут правильно подобрать и купить
с доставкой подходящий редуктор
по выгодной цене.
редуктор ц2у 250 редуктор ц2у 250

Sat, May 4, 2019 @ 11:38 AM

17. wrote:
Компания "Промтеплострой" предоставляет на рынок
в пределах России и СНГ большой выбор пром.
оборудования, в том числе широкий выбор редукторов
различного назначения.
Для изготовления и сборки используются только качественные и
надёжные материалы. Специалисты
помогут правильно подобрать и купить с доставкой подходящий редуктор по
выгодной цене.
редуктор червячный ч-125 редуктор червячный ч-125 (Alexis)

Sat, May 4, 2019 @ 11:51 AM

18. wrote:
If you are going for finest contents like I do, only pay a quick visit this
web site daily since it offers feature contents, thanks

Sat, May 11, 2019 @ 8:42 PM

19. wrote:
I used to be able to find good info from your articles.

Sun, May 12, 2019 @ 10:27 PM

20. wrote:
For most up-to-date information you have to go to see internet and on internet I found this web site
as a best web page for newest updates.

Wed, May 15, 2019 @ 3:36 PM

21. Johnc709 wrote:
Hi there! Someone in my Myspace group shared this site with us so I came to give it a appear. Im definitely loving the details. Im bookmarking and will likely be tweeting this to my followers! Outstanding blog and great style and style. edbceecdgadb

Mon, May 20, 2019 @ 10:51 AM

22. wrote:
Hello there, I discovered your website via Google even as searching for a related topic, your site got here up, it seems great.
I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
Hi there, just became aware of your blog thru Google, and located that it is truly informative.
I'm gonna watch out for brussels. I will appreciate when you
continue this in future. Numerous people will probably be
benefited from your writing. Cheers!

Fri, June 7, 2019 @ 7:31 AM

23. Johna303 wrote:
In My Bambino site you can find sso many interesting aspefts dafcefcadbca

Wed, June 12, 2019 @ 5:33 PM

24. Johnb455 wrote:
Link exchange is nothing else but it is just placing the other persons weblog link on your page at proper place and other person will also do similar in support of you. ggbecgkbfbbd

Thu, July 4, 2019 @ 8:47 AM

25. wrote:
I was very pleased to find this website. I want to to thank you for your time just for this fantastic read!!
I definitely appreciated every little bit of it and I have
you saved to fav to check out new things in your site.

Thu, July 11, 2019 @ 4:48 PM

26. wrote:
I know this site provides quality based articles and additional stuff, is there any other web site which
gives these things in quality?

Thu, July 18, 2019 @ 8:55 AM

27. wrote:
An interesting discussion is worth comment. I do
believe that you need to publish more on this issue, it might
not be a taboo matter but typically people do not talk about such subjects.
To the next! Best wishes!! natalielise plenty of fish

Wed, July 24, 2019 @ 6:19 AM

28. wrote:
I'm gone to convey my little brother, that he should also visit this
website on regular basis to obtain updated from newest news update.

Thu, August 1, 2019 @ 2:34 PM

29. wrote:
Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you writing this post and the rest of the site is very good.

Wed, August 14, 2019 @ 7:29 AM

30. wrote:
I don't even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
I do not know who you are but definitely you're going to a famous blogger if
you aren't already ;) Cheers!

Sun, August 18, 2019 @ 6:59 AM

31. wrote:
I've been surfing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any
interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me.
In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as
you did, the internet will be a lot more useful than ever before.

Sat, September 7, 2019 @ 4:06 AM

32. wrote:
I need to to thank you for this fantastic read!!
I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it. I've got you saved as a favorite to look at new stuff you post…

Mon, September 16, 2019 @ 7:13 AM

33. wrote:
Helpful info. Lucky me I found your site by chance, and
I am surprised why this coincidence didn't happened
earlier! I bookmarked it.

Sat, September 28, 2019 @ 11:53 AM

34. wrote:
Wonderful post however I was wanting to know if
you could write a litte more on this subject? I'd be very
grateful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Kudos!

Sun, October 20, 2019 @ 11:16 PM

35. Huuuge casino apps wrote:
Некоторые пункты отмеченые в этой статье - очень важные! Я ценю, что вы пишете этот пост, а остальная часть сайта очень хорошая.

Thu, October 31, 2019 @ 6:46 AM

Add a New Comment


code
 

Comment Guidelines: No HTML is allowed. Off-topic or inappropriate comments will be edited or deleted. Thanks.

    Copyright 2019 Heartland Architectural Products. All Rights Reserved.


The information presented on this website was assembled with care and is believed to be current and accurate on the date presented; however, the information was prepared by the manufacturers represented and not by Heartland Architectural Products LLC, Kevin W. Decker and David Gary, who cannot and does not extend any warranty either express or implied for the company or themselves or on behalf of the manufacturer, all of which are disclaimed, including without limitation, the implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose. Services by Heartland Architectural Products LLC, Kevin W. Decker and David Gary are not intended or offered in substitution for the design professional’s judgment and due diligence. It is expected that a design professional will exercise professional judgment and due diligence before issuing Contract Documents for a specific application under a professional seal and signature in accordance with applicable laws.